Parasites, reproduction, immunocompétence, and stuff

Posté par Timothée le 12 May 2007 dans , , , , , Pas de commentaires

Je suis en train de finir (plus ou moins) mon mémoire, avant de le livrer au regarde critique mais bienveillant de mes relecteurs, puis correcteurs. Je ne résiste pas, cependant, à l’envie de vous faire un résumé rapide d’un des concepts que j’ai découvert (c’est -à-dire qu’il existait avant, mais que je n’en avais pas franchement connaissance) pendant ces 7 semaines de travail sur le poisson cyprinidé Leuciscus cephalus (L.), et les nombreux parasites qu’il abrite. Rien de très scientifique, rien de très formel, juste une petite présentation.

Je l’ai dit plusieurs fois auparavant, je le dirais encore je pense, mais il est fondamental de se souvenir que chaque organisme dispose, à chaque instant d’une quantité limitée d’énergie. Bien sûr, ça n’a l’air de rien comme ça, mais ce constat très simple a pourtant des conséquences énormes sur l’écologie, et pourquoi pas l’évolution.

Cette énergie, l’organisme va devoir la répartir entre différentes fonctions, et les plus consommatrices sont l’immunocompétence et la reproduction. Je passe sur la reproduction, concept à peu près clair pour tout le monde, du moins je pense. L’immunocompétence est définie comme étant la capacité à déclencher (et si possible, à maintenir et réguler) une réponse immunitaire.

C’est à ce moment qu’interviennent les parasites. Pour faire simple, un organisme va se défendre (plutôt violemment, d’ailleurs) contre tout ce qui n’est pas lui. Ce qui inclut les parasites. Cette défense (si on exclut, dans le cas des parasites, les défenses “comportementales”) est immunitaire. Donc, demande de consommer de l’énergie. Et cette énergie allouée à la défense immunitaire n’est pas disponible pour la reproduction.

L’animal le plus extraordinaire du monde vivantJe fais une parenthèse en ce qui concerne la défense contre le “non-soi”. L’”animal le plus extraordinaire du monde vivant” (la formule est de Combes, si je me souviens bien) est un parasite. N’importe lequel des parasites de la classe des Diplozoidae, comme celui que vous pouvez voir à gauche,  correspond à cette définition. Ces parasites sont sensés être hermaphrodites, mais ont un besoin impératif d’être deux pour se reproduire (ce qui n’a pas l’air d’être un avantage). Cette reproduction se fait selon une modalité particulière: une fusion des deux individus, qui “abouchent” (mettent en commun) leurs systèmes nerveux, digestifs, et leurs appareils reproducteurs. Je vous laisse imaginer les problèmes de compatibilité que ça pose (j’ai lu un mémoire de DEA la dessus, mais ce n’est pas le sujet).

Pour comprendre comment tout ça interagit, et c’est considéré comme un des enjeux principaux de l’immunologie écologique, il faut donc se pencher simultanément sur trois domaines: parasitologie, physiologie, immunologie. D’un point de vue personnel, c’est ce que je cherchais en biologie: ne pas être cantonné à un domaine particulier.

Les relations entre tous ces facteurs sont nombreuses, vous vous en doutez, et je ne vais pas en faire une liste exhaustive ici. Par contre, je vais m’attarder sur le handicap d’être un mâle attrayant. Parce qu’être un mâle attrayant, c’est dangereux. D’ou l’air passablement surpris et indigné de Paralabidochromis sp., nouvellement recruté pour l’en-tête de ces pages, qui n’avait pas été prévenu du danger de ses ornements.

Parlons de ces ornements. Ils se mettent à bourgeonner sur le corps du mâle (on assiste à des poussées de tubercules sur Abramis brama, et d’autres poissons, par exemple) suite à la présence d’androgènes, ces hormones qui font que les mâles sont mâles et que les femelles… ne le sont pas. Et les systèmes neuro-endocriniens (celui qui s’occupe des hormones) et immunitaires (dont le nom est assez explicite) ont eu du mal à se mettre d’accord. Chez Salmo salar (le saumon qu’on mange pendant les fêtes, ou même entre les fêtes, pourquoi se priver), on a remarqué que la testostérone tuait ses leucocytes. La même équipe (Slater et ses collaborateurs) avait découvert des récepteurs à cette même testostérone sur les lymphocytes de Salmo truta (la truite normale, pas l’arc-en-ciel, qui est Onchorynchus mykiss).

La, si je m’avance un peu, je dirais que sous cette guerre apparente entre les deux systèmes se trouve un mécanisme assez élégant. Pour se reproduire (il y a une série d’éxperiences la dessus dont je parle un peu plus loin), il faut présenter des ornements. Et pour ces ornements, il faut de l’énergie, et donc il faut arrêter d’investir dans l’immunocompétence. Puisque le système immunitaire est relativement susceptible et peu enclin à la soumission, on emploie la manière forte, et on tue ses cellules. Madame poisson n’attend pas… C’est une hypothèse qui n’engage que moi, et qui est un peu déterministe sur les bords.

Autre information intéressante (c’est une parenthèse qui va dans le sens de ce que je dis juste avant), si on stresse un poisson, il répond par une activation du système neuro-endocrinien, et notamment par une synthèse de cortisol. Et devinez quoi? Oui, le cortisol est immunosuppresseur chez les poissons(d’après les travaux de Buchmann et de ses collaborateurs). Idem, d’après Bly et Clem, un stress thermique entraîne une immunosuppression. Le système immunitaire est mis à rude épreuve, quand on a besoin d’énergie pour autre chose…

Et nos parasites? J’y venais, mais avant, une petite expérience sur les ornements. Il me semble que c’est un travail de Balthazart en 1983, mais je vérifierai à l’occasion (la référence est quelque part dans mon mémoire). Ils ont mis des mâles et des femelles guppy (poissons d’aquarium très colorés) ensemble, et ont remarqué que les femelles choisissaient systèmatiquement les bright males (avec des couleurs, des ornements, ce qui traduit un investissement important dans la reproduction, donc une grande énergie, donc un potentiel génétique intéressant). Et la ils ont mis de la lumière verte, qui gomme les couleurs des mâles.

Verdict? Les femelles ont arreté de trier, et se sont mises à choisir leurs partenaires au hasard. Messieurs, vous saurez quoi acheter dans un magasin de luminaires maintenant…

Il y a eu énormément d’expériences de ce type chez les poissons et les oiseaux. Et puis un jour, quelqu’un (par exemple, Clayton l’a fait en 1991) a décidé de regarder ce qui se passait si on invitait des parasites. Et sans surprise, les mâles sont devenus plus ternes. L’énergie qui partait dans l’immunocompétence était indisponible pour la reproduction. N’en déplaise à madame poisson, qui a du revoir ses standards à la baisse.

Imaginez maintenant qu’un poisson soit suffisament vigoureux pour être parasité et avoir des ornements: vous avez le bright male idéal, celui qui a le fond génétique le plus avantageux pour la femelle. Donc le partenaire de choix.

Les lecteurs attentifs (et maniaques) auront remarqué quelque chose. On ne parle que de mâles ici. En fait, les travaux de ce type sur des femelles sont assez peu nombreux (ma façon d’expliquer que je n’en ai pas trouvé). Ce qui peut s’expliquer par le fait que le champ de recherche soit encore jeune, et que le nombre de modèles pour des poissons soit vraiment réduit. Si on ajoute le fait que peu de travaux sont réalisés en conditions naturelles, on commence à avoir une idée de la quantité de travail qui reste à faire…

J’arrête la mon petit résumé de la chose, vous en saurez plus dès que j’aurais fini mon mémoire et qu’il se retrouvera miraculeusement ici…

Timothée is
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